# Physics 1

## Physics 1 : Scope and Sequence

**Students will be able to:**

Create and interpret graphs of linear motion for both constant velocity and uniform acceleration. Graph data collected with technologies such as sonic motion detectors, photogates, and digital video of moving objects.

Utilize basic kinematics formulas to predict such items as velocity, position, displacement, time interval, and acceleration given known values.

Recognize the differences of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, average and instantaneous values.

**Suggested Activities**

Position in a frame of reference, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, reference frames, motion graphs of position and velocity versus time, acceleration versus time {metric units and conversions utilized within the topics}

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- Graph Matching, Back and Forth Motion, Cart on a Ramp, Picket Fence Free Fall

The Moving Man

**Students will be able to:**

Recognize a vector quantity as being represented by a set of two numbers; magnitude and direction values. These are primarily introduced with direction given as an angle from the positive x-axis.

Demonstrate the addition of similar vectors by the head to tail graphical method and be able to calculate resultants for collinear and perpendicular vectors.

In advanced classes, resolve vectors into perpendicular components using basic trigonometry.

Recognize that the following are vector quantities used often in this course: displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and others as encountered during the course.

**Suggested Activities**

Vectors vs. scalars, addition of vectors, components of vectors {preparation for two-dimensional motion and forces}

Technology inclusive activities:

PhET Interactive Simulations:

Vector Addition

**Students will be able to:**

With negligible air resistance, predict time of flight to landing, maximum height reached, and horizontal displacement for a variety of sample projectiles in two-dimensional motion under the influence of gravity. (assume g value for Earth as 9.80 m/s/s)

Verify low speed projectile results with technologies available, such as digital video.

**Suggested Activities**

Uniform accelerated motion of projectiles {two-dimensional motion}

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- Ball Toss; Projectile Motion

Vernier Video Analysis App analyze a tossed ball

PhET Interactive Simulations:

Projectile Motion

**Students will be able to:**

Calculate the net force on an object and the resulting acceleration if the forces are unbalanced. Examples of both balanced and unbalanced forces will be presented by students. Explanations will include free-body force diagrams.

Include the law of inertia, objects at rest or moving with constant velocity continue to do so when the net force on the object is zero (balanced forces).

Students will demonstrate that action/ reaction force pairs always exist on two bodies.

**Suggested Activities**

Newton’s laws of motion, free-body diagrams, effects of forces on the motion of objects, friction

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- Newton’s Second Law; Atwood’s Machine; Newton’s Third Law; Static and Kinetic Friction; Air Resistance

PhET Interactive Simulations

Force and Motion

**Students will be able to:**

Calculate the momentum of objects and the sum of momentums for two objects moving along one line.

Calculate the change in momentum caused by an impulse exerted on an object. Examples can include the hitting of a tennis ball or golf ball along with other student generated examples.

Analyze simple elastic and inelastic collisions for two bodies moving along the same axis. Use the conservation of momentum law to predict outcomes.

Verify some simple collisions using available technologies such as dynamics carts colliding on tracks.

**Suggested Activities**

Momentum, change in momentum caused by an impulse, conservation of momentum for interactions between two bodies {two dimensions for advanced classes}

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- Momentum, Energy, and Collisions; Impulse and Momentum

**Students will be able to:**

Calculate quantities of work and power and use the work-energy theorem in simple motion changes of one body.

Given examples of kinetic and potential energy and their transformations in simple mechanical systems, calculate the mechanical energy and power.

Demonstrate and apply the law of conservation of energy and conservation to some simple mechanical systems.

**Suggested Activities**

Mechanical energy, conservation of energy for simple mechanical transformations, introduce other forms of energy that are typically associated with common student experiences {qualitative discussion of other forms of energy}

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- Energy of a Tossed Ball; Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

PhET Interactive Simulations:

Energy Skate Park

Hooke’s Law

**Students will be able to:**

Determine centripetal forces and centripetal accelerations for objects moving in circular motion. Utilize free-body force diagrams in explanations.

Compare the rotational motion of a body around a central axis to quantities used previously in the study of linear motion. Utilize quantities for angular velocity, angular acceleration, torque and rotational inertia for simple examples.

Apply the universal law of gravitation between two masses.

Explain how gravitation can cause circular motion of satellites with the correct speed and distance such as those placed in orbit around Earth.

Provide examples of elliptical satellite orbits and concepts utilizing Kepler’s Laws for orbital motion.

**Suggested Activities**

Linear vs. rotational velocity, centripetal force and centripetal acceleration, satellite motion, Kepler’s Laws, Universal Gravitation Law

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- Accelerations in the Real World;

Use a Vernier GDX Acceleration sensor attached to rotation objects such as a bicycle crank arm

Gravity Force Lab

Ladybug Motion 2D

Ladybug Revolution

Torque

Balancing Act

Gravity and Orbits

**Students will be able to:**

Recognize that two types of electrical charge exist and that like repel and opposites attract.

Ordinarily, electric charge can be transferred by the movement of electrons. Students will be able to recognize charging by friction, conduction, and induction.

Calculate the electrical force on point static charges using Coulomb’s Law.

Provide examples of conductors and insulators based on electrical properties.

Measure current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power in simple DC electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel combinations. Make predictions with calculations involving Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s Laws.

**Suggested Activities**

Static electricity, Coulomb’s Law, simple DC circuits using Ohm’s Law, resistance, current, voltage, and power

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- Ohm’s Law; Series and Parallel Circuits; Electrical Energy

PhET Interactive Simulations:

Coulomb’s Law

Charges and Fields

Balloons and Static Electricity

Ohm’s Law

Resistance in a Wire

Circuit Construction Kit: DC

**Students will be able to:**

Know that there are two types of magnetic poles for physical magnets, N and S, and that these are not the same as electrical charges even though the magnetic forces are similar in interaction both in attraction and repulsion and forces depending on the inverse square of distance.

List some materials that show strong ferromagnetic properties.

Illustrate magnetic force fields through and around a permanent bar magnet. Research how the Earth’s magnetic field differs in shape from a bar magnets field. Also research the current location of the Earth’s magnetic poles and use a compass to point out local cardinal directions.

Demonstrate that electrical currents create magnet fields, called electromagnetism.

Demonstrate that magnetic fields exert forces on moving electric charges, the electric motor effect.

Explain the difference between the electric generator and electric motor effect.

Explain the use of transformers in AC power circuits.

**Suggested Activities**

Magnetic force, magnetic fields, and electromagnetism

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- The Magnetic Field in a Coil; Magnetic Field of a Magnet

Magnets and Electromagnets

**Students will be able to:**

Describe and illustrate the characteristics and behavior of mechanical waves.

Examine oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media such as elastic cords, slinky springs and water ripple tanks. Determine period and frequency relationships.

Investigate and analyze wave motion, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength. Calculate wave speed utilizing frequency and wavelength.

Compare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves in mechanical form such as those in disturbed elastic cords and also electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum.

Compare characteristics and behaviors of mechanical longitudinal waves, including sound waves of various frequencies and amplitudes.

Observe and investigate examples of wave addition, constructive and destructive interference, reflections, refraction, and diffraction.

Observe resonance and the Doppler effect.

Observe and predict image formation in reflection from plane and curved mirrors.

Observe and predict image formation by refraction through thin convex and concave lenses.

**Suggested Activities**

Wave velocity, frequency, amplitude, reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, transverse and longitudinal waves, sound, electromagnetic waves

Technology inclusive activities:

Physics with Vernier Experiments- Light, Brightness and Distance; Speed of Sound; Sound Waves and Beats

PhET Interactive Simulations:

Waves Intro

Waves Interference

Waves on a String

Bending Light

Color Vision

**Students will be able to:**

Describe the dual nature of light and the photoelectric effect.

Observe and explain the emission spectra produced by various elemental atoms when energized in gas tubes.

Calculate and describe the applications of mass-energy equivalence using E=mc^2.

**Suggested Activities**

Wave/particle duality, photoelectric effect, line spectra

Technology inclusive activities:

Photoelectric Effect

Blackbody Spectrum

**Students will be able to:**

Compare temperature scales of Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin.

Explain temperature versus the thermal energy of a given amount of substance.

Observe everyday examples that illustrate the four laws of thermodynamics and the processes of thermal energy transfer, such as refrigeration, combustion engines, evaporation and condensation.

**Suggested Activities**

Laws of thermodynamics, heat energy transfer, entropy {Most thermodynamics topics are introduced in chemistry and advanced chemistry courses.}

Technology inclusive activities:

PhET Interactive Simulations:

Energy Forms and Changes

**Students will be able to:**

Research examples of atomic and nuclear phenomena using the standard model such as nuclear stability, fission and fusion, radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging, semiconductors, superconductors, solar cells, and nuclear power and examples of applications of quantum phenomena.

**Suggested Activities**

Nuclear energy, fission, fusion, radioactive decay, special relativity

Technology inclusive activities:

PhET Interactive Simulations:

Alpha Decay

Beta Decay

Nuclear Fission